Female Infertility

Causes of infertility in women

There are many medical conditions and other factors which may cause reproductive issues. The following list includes some of the most common causes of infertility in females, however, it is not meant to be all-inclusive. The information provided here by the Fertility Society is not to be seen as medical advice, and it is essential to discuss your personal situation with your qualified local fertility specialist.
female infertility

Female fertility tests

Fertility tests play a pivotal role in assessing your individual situation. Your fertility specialist will ask you to have blood tests and an ultrasound performed, and depending on your situation a range of additional tests may be prescribed. The aim is to evaluate your eggs, tubes, and uterus and create a personalised treatment plan.

If you are under 35 and you have been trying to conceive without using birth control for 12 months or longer, we recommend making an appointment with your GP or a fertility specialist. If you are over 35 we recommend seeking help after 6 months of actively trying to conceive. During your first appointment, you will be asked a range of questions. The following list gives you an idea of typical questions your GP or fertility specialist will ask.

  • How long have you been trying to conceive?
  • Have you had previous births and were there any complications during previous pregnancies?
  • Have you had any miscarriages?
  • Have you been using contraception and for how long?
  • When did you stop using contraception?
  • How often do you have sexual intercourse?
  • Do you menstruate regularly?
  • Have you done a recent cervical screening test?
  • Have you had any sexually transmitted infections (STIs)?
  • Which medical conditions do you have?
  • Are you taking any medications and/or supplements?
  • Do you smoke and/or take illicit drugs?
  • How much alcohol do you consume?
  • How much caffeine do you consume?
  • Are you exposed to any chemicals or toxins on a regular basis?
  • What’s your weight? BMI?
  • Do you exercise?
  • Are you stressed?
To investigate further a range of tests may be prescribed. The exact range of tests that are ordered will vary depending on your chosen fertility specialist.

Blood tests

Blood tests will be done to check a range of hormones including FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone), LH (luteinising hormone) and your level of Anti-Mullerian hormone. The AMH blood test is a good indicator of your ovarian reserve.

Chlamydia test

Chlamydia may negatively affect your reproductive system. You will be asked to take a swab to collect some cells from your cervix or a urine test.

Pelvic ultrasound

To check your ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes, and ultrasound will be prescribed. Conditions such as fibroids or endometriosis may be detected, as well as signs for blocked or damaged fallopian tubes. If the ultrasound suggests possible blockage, you will be referred for a hysterosalpingo-contrast-ultrasonography (HyCoSy) or an X-ray.


If a problem is detected after doing the initial fertility tests, a laparoscopy may be recommended and prescribed, to examine your uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries.

Importance of your medical history

The more information you can provide about your medical history, the better your fertility specialist will be able to assess your individual situation.
Please note that the information provided is not medical advice. To obtain personalised information about suspected infertility, please contact your qualified fertility specialist.